The myth of the ancient window pane has therefore been thought of as a good way to show students that the everyday meaning of the word "liquid" is not completely subverted by thinking of glass as a liquid too. Putting the myth to the test, several researchers have recently made a stab at calculating how fast glass actually flows. Unfortunately for the textbooks, the latest estimate, made by Yvonne Stokes of the University of Adelaide, and which will be reported in the Proceedings of the Royal Society next month, is that it would take over 10 million years for a window pane to flow perceptibly.
Dr Stokes's calculations, which use the equations of fluid dynamics, also show that a thickening at the bottom of a pane of glass would not result in a thinning at its top, as might naively be expected. Rather, the flow of glass would cause a reduction in the overall height of the pane. Even a 5% thickening at the bottom of a window a metre high would result in a shrinkage of the window's height by about a centimetre. In other words, if the original myth were correct, old windows would have gaping holes in them. That does, however, leave the question of what the real reason is that the glass in old windows tends to be thicker at the bottom than at the top. Perhaps it is just that medieval glaziers preferred it that way. Take action now for maximum saving as these discount codes will not valid forever.
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Heating homemade potting mixes to sterilizing temperatures wipes out all living things, beneficial and detrimental, leaving a clean slate for possible invasion of pathogens and causing nutritional problems such as ammonia toxicity.
Pasteurization, which occurs at lower temperatures, kills only a fraction of the organisms.